SPA Oreinos Evros-Koilada Dereiou

Oreinos Evros-Koilada Dereiou Special Protection Area (GR1110010)

This site is situated in North East Greece next to Bulgarian border. It belongs to the Soufli municipality and the majority of the villages are traditional Pomak villages. The site encompasses the catchment of Diavolorema river that creates deep and steep slopes. 

Oreinos map
Landscape and biodiversity
This site is too forested and less degraded by grazing. Forests of oaks and beeches with small clumps of pine reforestations cover the low hills. Partly forested areas with dispersed mature oak trees dominate a large part of the area, used for traditional non-intensive livestock grazing. The Diavolorema River crosses the area creating locations with riparian vegetation and small rocky outcrops. In many hedges around the fields, fruit trees have been remained offering food for the mammals.
Oreinos forest

Broadleaved forest (WWF/G. Mercier)
It is an important area mainly for breeding raptors, forest, agriculture and shrubland species, as well as migratory raptors. The area is situated next to the Dadia National Park and it is frequently used by vultures as foraging area. Sporadic observations of Brown Bear occur in these valleys while the wolf keeps permanent small population. The mature oaks trees and rocky outcrops are suitable for raptor nests. Priority species include: Golden Eagle, Black Vulture, Lesser-spotted Eagle, Short-toed Eagle, Booted Eagle and Black Stork. One territory of Egyptian Vulture occurs in the area but the pair is not active.
Forestry and animal husbandry are the main occupations of the residents. Oak forest is exploited for fire wood while beech and pine forest for industrial wood. The forest management is more intensive in the oak forests as demand for fire wood is high. The livestock breeding is still active in the Pomak villages however this activity gradually is abandoned.

Oreinos oak trees
Oak trees used as fodders for goats and sheep (WWF/D. Skartsi)
The reduction of livestock is an ongoing threat to the availability of food for the vultures, but also for the maintenance of open forests. An ongoing threat is also the illegal use of poisoned baits for foxes, wolves or due to the poisoning of dogs as result of informal resolving of rivalries between shepherds and hunters for the loss of their dogs. The intense forest management with the removal of mature trees threatens the breeding sites of raptors and other birds like woodpeckers. There are few wind turbines in this site, but the number of planned wind farms is very high and this is a potentially high risk to raptors and vultures.
Conservation status
This site is included in the networks of the Special Protected Areas, the Sites of Community Importance and the Important Bird Areas.

oak forest
Oak forests in Derio (WWF/G. Azoridis)

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